ٰſ ǥ

( Ŵ )

 

:

18  Ͽ ȸ ȸ Ӱ ʹ ˷ ̴.  ȸ ǰ ִ (Anti-nomianism) ص ߴ Ȱ ϰ ̲, ̷  ħ ȸ ȸ Ӱ Ͽ ̴. ׷⿡ ̷   ѱ ȸ Ͼ ϰڴ. ȸ 18 ȸ ŭ Ȱ ־ Ȱ ̺ȭ ̰ ֱ ̴.

׷, ̷  ٰſ ǥ ΰ . ٸ ־, ۵, ׸ ֱٿ Ͽ.

A. ٰ

ϳ ѿ ϰ ִ´ Ư¡ ִ. ׷ ǹ̿ п ü ϴ ̶ ִ. ΰ , ϳ Ͽ ΰ ڰ , å Ͽ⿡ ü ʰ ǰ ִ ̴. , ٷ ü п Ͽ, ϳ ƹ â , ׸ (implication) ִ ̴.

I. ϳ â

ϳԲ ϳ âϼ̴ٴ â ִ ̴. ϳ ϳ (imago dei) âϼ, ΰ ŸϿ ұϰ ȸϽñ⸦ Ͻñ ̴.

1.1. ϳ â

ΰ ϳ ޾Ҵٴ , ΰ , Ǹ, Ǵ ϳԲ û ν ٰŸ Ѵ.

տ ϴ ٰŵ ȴ. ƹ ̷ ΰ δϰ óϰų д ̴.

տ ϸ ̿ ٰ ΰ Ǹ(Human rights) ߿ߴٰ Ѵ. ΰ (dignity), ġ, ġ , Ǿ ູϱ Ͽ ʿ ͵ Ǹ ߴ. Ư Ÿ, ݹڵ ̿ ٰ ̶ ִ.

1.2. ϳ Ʒ ִ ΰ

.

1.2.1 ڿ ΰ)

׷ â ΰ ŸϿٴ ־ ڵ ؿ Ѵ. ƴ ˷ Ͽ η Ÿߴٰ Ѵ. ڿ ƹ ɷ . ߰, ִٸ ̴. , ŵ쳪 ü ȿ , ŵ쳪 ϳ ڽð ϳ Ͻ ϵ ɷ ٰ ϰ ִ.

̷ Ѵٸ, ΰ ϳ 𸣰, ƹ ɷµ ٰ Ѵٸ ʴ ̴. ̷ ؿ ΰ å ̴. ̷ ϸ, ϳ ظ ϴ ִ ̴. ׷, ̷ ذ Ѵ. а ޸ ذϿ ٰŸ Ѵ.

1.2.2. ȸ

ߵ ˷ ΰ Ÿ Ѵ. ׷ ÿ, ״ ϳ Ͽ, ƴ ˷ Ǿ, ټҳ Ϻ ȸǾ ϳ θ ִ ΰ Ǿٰ Ѵ.

̴ Ÿ ϳ ִ ߿ ǹ̸ Ѵ. ΰ ִ ɼ ϳ θ ִ ɼ ȸ ִ ɼ ϳԲκ ־ ̴. ο ־ٰ Ѵ(Free grace for all and in all). ϳ õ̽ô. ׷ ÿ, ׷⿡, Ʒ ִ ΰ ΰ ΰ ϳ Ͽ ִ ɷ ѵ ϰ ̴. ΰ ִ ̴.

ϳ (universality of the work of the Spirit) ǹѴ. Ͻô ̴. ̿ ˷ Ͽ ŸϿ, ϳ ( ȭ) Ͽ ϳ ϴ νϴ ־ ̴. ٸ ǥϿ, Դ ִٴ ̴. ׷ ϸ ɵ ϸ ϳ ̴.

ϳԲ ȿ Ͻô ڽ ̷ ֽϴ. ΰ ϳԲ ڱ ڽ ȿ ҿϽð ϽùǷ Ǹ ֽϴ. ϳԲ ϼǷ ϳ , ȿ Ŵ ֽϴ.

̷ Ѱ ־ Ǵ Ȱ (Synergism) ϰ ȴ. ׷ Ͽ , (Semi-Pelagianism) ϴ ƴϴ. ̴ ϳ ѿ ٰ ׸ ȿ ̴. ׷Ƿ, ̸ (Evangelical Synergism)̶ ĪѴ.

1.3. ϳ Ʒ ִ

Ѱ ϳ Ư¡ ϰ ϴ ̴. Į ϵ ϹѰ ̺ȭϸ ʴ´. ־ ̽ ϳ Ͻ , ǹѴ. , , ġ , ŵ쳪 ϴ , ϴ ȴ. ڴ Ͻð, Ͻô ϳ , ȣϿ ŷϰ Ͽ ϴ ̴. ̷ . , ϳ ѿ ϰ, Ǵ , ׷ٰ Ͽ, å ̴. ̿ Ѱ ٰŸ ϴ ̴. ɳ ڻ簡 ü п ߰ ִ ǥ Ÿϴٰ ϰڴ.

II. ׸ :

п ٰϰ ֱ⿡, ׸ Ͽ ϳ԰ ȭ Ǵ, Ī, ߻, ȭ ߿ϰ Ǿ ִ.

ڵ Ī( Justification) (mere imputation of righteousness) Կ Ͽ ȭ Ѵ. ׸ (for us) ƴ϶, ƿ(in us) Ӱ ϴ ڷ Ͽ ׸ ȿ ִ ɷ ֽô ̴. ־ ڴ ƴ϶, å ִ ̴. ٿ Բ ϴ ̶ Ѵ.

2.1. ǥμ

׸ ŵ쳪, å ִ ൿ ִ ڿԴ ׸ Ȱ ȴ. ִ ŵ Ͻñ⸦, Ͱ ϶ кϼ̴. ϳ ȿ Ѵ ϴ ڴ (׸) Ͻô ڱ ϶ ׸ġ ִ. ׷ , ΰ ϵ ׿ Ȱ Ѵٴ ǹ̴ ƴϴ. ̴ 游Ͽ Ͽ ڵ 游Ͽ, ϶ ̴. , ϳԲ ϳ Կ ־ ħ ̴ּٰ ϴ ̴.

2.1.1. ϳ ȣμ ̿

ϳԲ ֽ ̿ ڱ ϴ ̴. ־ ̴ ڿο ƴϴ. ϳ ȣ̴. ϳ ϴ , ϳ ϴ ΰ? ϳ ϴ ϳ ϰ Ű ̶ Ѵ. ̴ Ұϴ.

ൿ Ұ ̶ Ҵ. ǹ̿ ϴٰ ̴. 13: οϸ鼭 Ѵ. ͵,׸ ϰ, ־ ԰ ѵ, ٸ, װ ִ ̰ڴ°? ʴ ϳ, װ ǹ̿ ̶ ٴ ̴.

̿ ϳ ȣμ Ͽ Ѵ. θ Ѵ. ÿ ̶ Ѵ. ֳϸ, ϳ ް ֱ⿡, ġ ִٰ ̴.

2.1.2.

18 ȸ ؿ ־ ȭ ־. , ޱ Ͽ Ѿ Ѵٴ (doctrine of Justification by Works) ġ ϴ (Antinomians) ̴. ⿡ ʴ Ͽ, ű⿡ ذϿ.

ϳԲ ֽ зǴµ, ϳ ǽĿ (ceremonial law)̿, ϳ (moral law)μ, ׸ ϱ ۿ Ǵ ǽĿ ϼ, Ű ʾҴٰ Ѵ. ǽĿ ϳ ּ ƴϳ, ϳ ġ ʴ ִ ̴. ϸ, () Ͽ غϸ, 츮 εѴ(points us to the gospel); ׷ ϸ ٸ , Ȯϰ ų ֵ εѴ. и , ޴ ǽ ̳ ϳ, ׸ μ Ű, ϳ ȿ β ִ. , ڴ ϳ dz ӹ Ͽ ϳ Ͽ Ѵٰ Ͼ. ̰ Ÿ δµ ʿϴٰ ̴.. ̰ ϴ 3 뵵̴. ϳ տ ϴ , ϳԲ ̸ Ͽ ϳ԰ ϰ Ͻô ̴. ϸ, ׸Է εϸ, ׸ ħ ô ̴. ̿ ־ ۿ ֿ ־ ÿ ϴ , , ʿ ̴.

III. ȭ 翪: ȭ

3.1. ȭ:

ȭ Ư¡ ŵ쳭 ڰ ȿ , ܰ迡 ȭ Ǵ ̸ٴ ̴. ׸ ܰ ÿ ƴ϶ ϴ ϳ ̴. ݴ ʷϿ, ū Ư¡̿ ̴.

ൿ ൿ̶ ־, ȭ Ȯ Ҹ ¸ ϴ ̶ ϰڴ.

, ӿ ˰ ֱ⿡, ̿ ϴ ̸, ϳ տ ηϴ ̴. ڵ ̷ ° ִ ڿԴ ذ üϰ ִ ݸ, ڱ ִ ھư ع , ִ ɷ ޴´ٰ ̴. .

̴ ٷ ˸ ̿, ÿ ȥ ü ϻ ൿ ϴ ̴. ̴ ٷ ׻ ⻵ϰ ʰ ⵵ϸ ϴ ̴.

̴ ¸ Ȱ ִ ٰŸ ϴ ȭ Ҹ̸ Ѵ ϰڴ.

3.2.

ȭ , ̴ ڿ ̴. Ȥ ϰ ϱ⿡ ؼ, ȸ (social holiness)ۿ ٰ ־ Ѵ. , Ȱ Ѵٴ ϳ Ͽ ̳ ȸ ϴ ̴. ϳ ̱⿡, ϸ ȸ Ͽ ϴ ƴ .

ϳ ȭп Ư¡ ȭ ϸ ӵǾ Ѵٰ ϴ ̴. ̸ ׸ ׸ ϸ ϳ տ Ȱ Ͽ Ѵٴ ǹϴ ÿ, ϴ ̴. ׷Ƿ, Ǿ Ǵ ̴.

Ѵ, , ȸ ο, ȸ ȭǾ ̴. ̴ ÿ Ǵ ̴.

B. ǥ (Aim of Ethics)

׷ ٰ ϳ () ΰ? ǥϴ ٴ, ϴ Ͱ ȴ. ϳ ģ. ϳ ˷ Ÿ ϰ ϴ ̴. , ϳ ϴ , ձ ϴ ڵ ޸, Ͽ ݴϿ, ׸ ҽ ϸ, ϳ ձ (promote)ϱ Ͽ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ̾ ״ ϱ⸦,

׸ ȸ ȹ ̷. ȸ 𿩼, ù°, ڱ ڽ ȥ ϸ, ε ϴ ̴. ׸ , ִ (all men) ̷ ϸ, ź ձ ϸ, ׸ ׸ ձ Ǹϴ ִ.

ο빮 ֵ ׷⿡, , ȥ Ͽ Ӱ ϴ Ѵ. ׷ Ű ӹ ʰ, ǰ ο ȸ Ӱ Ͽ ħ ׸ ձ ־. ׷Ƿ ȸ Ͽ ִ.

IV. - Ӱ Ű

4.1. ϳ û

ϳ μ, ִ Ϳ ־ ϳԲ ڷμ װ͵ ħ ϳԲ ϰ, ִ ͵ ƴ϶ ͵ ڱ ڽ ڰ ϱ Ͽ ƴ϶, ϳ ڽð ϴ Ͼ߾ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ǹ̿ 츮鿡 Ͻ Ϳ Ұϱ ̴. ⿡ û ϰ ȴ.

4.1.1.ȥ,ü ϳ ڽð ϸ, ϳ Ͽ Ͽ Ѵ.

־ , ȥ, ü ִ. ű⿡ (talents) , Ͽ ƴ϶, ͵ ֽ ϳ Ͽ Ͽ Ѵٰ Ѵ. , ϰ ڱ Ʒ(discipline) ؼ ȴ. ǰ ġ ͵ ðų Ͽ ȴٰ Ѵ.

4.1.2. 츮 ־ , , ϳ Ͽ Ͽ Ѵ.

̷ ǥϴ , ϸ ־ ִ. ⼭ ϴ ٿ̶ , ̴ ü ׷ ƴϰ ϴ ڿ ׸ Ǵ ̴. ÿ ȸ Ϲ Ȱ ־ ڰ ȴٰ Ѵ. ׷⿡, ϱ⸦, մ (gain all you can) Ѵ. ׸ ϰ(save all you can), ׷ ִ θ ֶ(now give all you can) ǰѴ.

(riches) ϳ ھ Ű ̶ . ׷ ̷ ϱ Ͽ , ڶ ϴ ̴. ù° ° ǰ , ϶ , ֶ Ͽ ̴. ϳ Ư¡ Ǵ ߰ϰ ȴ. ״ / (means/end structure) ִ ̴. ̷ װ ڱ (self-denial) ϴ Ÿ ִ.

4.2. ڱ (self-denial)

־ ϰ , ΰ ˿ žӿ ģ ڱ (self-love) Ͽ ǰ ˰ ִ. ׷ Ȱ Ͽ ó ڱ (self-denial)̶ Ͽ. ֳϸ, Բ Ͻñ⸦, ŵ ڱ⸦ ϰ ڰ ̴϶(9:23) ̱ ̴.

4.2.1. ڱ ־ ִ ̴.

ٷ ڱ ̶ ϱ⸦, ڱ⸦ ϰ ڰ ִ ÿ ڵ鿡 ֽ ƴ϶, ܳ ֽ ̶ Ѵ. , ڱ ʿ ̸, ̸ ʴ ڴ ڰ ƴϴٶ Ѵ. ư ϱ⸦ Ͽ ڱ ʴ ٸ, 츮 ƴ϶, ٸ ִ ̸, ڰ ʴ ٸ, ִ ƴ϶, Ǵ (prince) ̿, ڱ ڽ ̴.

ÿ ϰ ִ ڵ (antinomians), ׸ ̿ϴ Ͽ ϸ, ڱ ħ ߿ϰ ִ. ߴ ϳ Ͽ. ׷ ڱ ̶ ΰ?

4.2.2. ڱ ϳ ְ Ȱ Թ ̴.

ϱ⸦, ̴ ù° Ͽ ־ ϳ ְ Թ(the supreme, unalterable rule) ̴. ΰ ŸϿ⿡, ڱ Ѵ. ϳ ϳԲ εϴ ̴. ׷ ϳ ϴ , ٸ, ϳ ݴȴ. ׷Ƿ, ÿ ٴ Ұϴ. ϳ Ͽ Ѵ. ϳ ϰ ڱ °, ƴϸ ڱ ϰ ϳ ڿ ϳ Ͽ Ѵ. ׷⿡, , ڱ⸦ Ѵٴ ϳ 󸶳 ڰ ϴ ̵ , ڽ ϴ ̴.

4.2.3. ڱ ڰ ָ ƾ Ѵ.

ڱ⸦ Ѵٴ Ͱ ڰ ٴ ȣ Ǿ ִ ̴. ׷ ڱ ڰ ٴ ܼ ڱ κٴ ̸, ûѴٰ ִ. ڱ ڰ ٴ Ѵٴ ϱ ̴.

տ ָ ޸ ־, ϱ⸦, ϳ ڰ ְ Ѵ. ڰ ʰ, Ͽ ͵̴. ׷ ΰ? Ѵ. 츮 ڰ Ѵ. ġϱ Ͽ ڸµ Ͽ Ѵٴ ̴. ⿡ ڰ ϳ ϰ, ⵵ϰ, ϰ, ѿ ϴ , 츮 ȿ ־ ϳ ġ Ʒ Ͽ ϴ ̴.

4.2.4. 츮 ū Ͽ ڱ⸦ ϰ ڰ ָ ̴.

Կ ־, տ ߵ, / Ͽ Ѵ. ϴ , Ư ڱ , Ǵ û Ʒ ڱ ڽ , ڱ ڽ ߿ (for the improvement of ones own spiritual estate)ִ ƴϴ. ٽ ؼ self-directed ƴϿ other-directed (means) ̴. ־, ڱ , û δ ϳ ִ ׸(instrument) Ǹ, ϳ η ξ ֱ Ͽ ׸ (a suitable instrument) DZ ̴. ϴ ð , , Ǻ (on dress) ϳ ̿ , ڽ dz ڽ ƴϴ. ׸Ͽ , ȭ ҷ. ־, ٸ ̵ ϱ Ͽ غϴ ̶ ִ.

̷ ٷ ȸ ȴ.

V. ȸ - ȸ Ӱ ϴ

ȭп , ߴ. ׷ ϴ (mere holiness) ƴϾ. ״ ϴ (social holiness)̾. Ѵ.

׸ ׳ ʴ´. ȸ (social religion) Ѵ. ϵ ƴ϶, ȸ (social holiness) Ѵ. ϴ , ٷ ̰ ϴ ̿ ̿ ̸ Ѵ? Ѵٸ, ϵ θ ƴ϶, ׸ Ͱ ϴ ڴ Ͽ ̴.

ٸ ǥؼ ൿϴ ٷ ϳ ̴. ̷ ϴ ̴. ׷Ƿ ޼ƼƮ ȿ Ȱ ̷ Ѵ. ϴ ׸ , ϵ ٺ Ѵٰ 䱸ߴ. Ͽ ϴ , Ǵ ȸ ȸ ϴ ݴߴ. ־ ޼ƼƮ ȸ ӿ Ͽ Ѵ. ȸ ȸ Ű ȸ ̾.

5.1. ȸ Ӱ: μ ޼ƼƮ

ߵ Ư ȭп ޼ҵƮ (leaven of holiness) Ǿ Ѵٰ Ѵ. ӿ ִ ȸ Ͽ ʴ뱳ȸ Ư¡ Ұ ֱ ̴. ٷ ̷ б ߴ ʹ ̴̾߱. ߴ.

ظ ġ Ͽ. ظ ĥ . ׷ ̿,...Ѹ ū Ÿ ȸ ް Ǿ. װ 4 , Ī ׸̶ ϴ ܽźƾ Ȳ Ͽ ׸ε, Ư ڵ αͿ ȭ .. ׿ , ׸ ϴ α ȭ , ׸ Ÿϰ .... ϰ ִ ô Ǿ. ó Ҽ ϰ ΰ ǿ Ҵ."

ӿ ִ ȸ ŸϿ. ׷ ұϰ ŷ ִԲ ȸ ð ϰ ô ȸ () ŷϴٰ Ѵ. Ѵ.

ȸ Ӹ̽ ׸ ŷϽñ ̴. ȸ ŷϴ. ֳϸ ȸ '' Ű ȹǾ ֱ ̴. ... . ִԲ ε ŷϿ⸦ Ͻñ ̴."

̿ ȸ Ÿ ŷ ϸ鼭, ȸ ȸ (ְ) Ӱ, ŷϰ ϴ ̶ Ѵ. ޼ҵƮ ȸ Ӱ ϴ ̶ ϰ, ׸ Ͽ. ε ȸ ŷ ȸ DZ Ͽ Ű ؾ , Ͽ ڵ ŷ ;߸ Ѵٰ Ͽ.

5.2. ε鳢 ϰ Ͽ Ѵ.

ÿ ׷ ϳ ڳ鳢 ϸ ϴ ſ ƴ . ׷? , (The Catholic Spirit), ַ ó ʴ´, Ǵ ó ൿ ʴ´. ´ٰ ô. ׸ ൿ ־ ٸ ۿ ִ (basis) Ͽ. ձ 10:15 İ ȣ信 Ͽ ԰ ϳ ׷ ڰ Ͽ ٸ ϳ ڳ鿡 Ǯ Ѵ.

׷ ־ ٺ ǰ(mere opinion) ϰ ϰ ؼ ȴ. Ͽ . ׷ ׿ ؼ Ǵ , ִ ־ ǰ ޸ϴ ִ (We may agree to disagree) ڼ. ׷ (dogmatism) ϶ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ǰ ٸ Ͽ ϳ ս ־ Ǹ, ÿ װ ϳ ս Ͽ ȴٰ ̴.

5.3. ȸ Ӱ: Ѵ.

ȸ Ȱ ȴ. ȸ ǰ ϱ , (The Reformation of Manners) ִ. ȸ ȸ (The Society for the Reformation of Manners) 1763 μ, ȸ ǰ ִ Ű ʴ , , , ȸ(public vice) ϸ鼭 ǰ ϰ ִ. ׸Ͽ ڴ 1738 Ŀ ä ٰ Ѵ. ׷ ̴ ϴ ̴. ֳϸ ־ ȸ ɿ ϳ ̴. ־ ȸ ̶  ȯ ̴. ٽ ؼ, ̷ ϴ (evangelical emphases) ̶ ϰڴ. ϰ ȸ ϰ, ϴ ٷ ϳ Ÿ̶ ̴. ȸ ȸ ſ ȸ ϴ ̴. .

׸ ȸ ȹ(the original design of the church of Christ) ̷. ȸ 𿩼, ù°, ڱ ڽ ȥ ϸ, ε ϴ ̴. ׸ , ִ (all men) ̷ ϸ, ź ձ ϸ, ׸ ׸ ձ Ǹϴ ִ.

̷ ȸ ϴ (To Reform the Nation) å . ϸ, ޼ҵƮ ü ȿ ο ȸ ƴ϶ ȸ Ͽ, ġ ̾. ׷Ƿ, ־ ((Reformation and holiness) յ ̾. (holy living) Ͽ ̸, ޽ ĵǴ ȭ ̶ ߴ.

̿ ־ ϳ , ٷ ȸ Ǵ ̴. , ڵ ȸ ̺ȭϴ ִµ Ͽ, Ư ִ ̴. ׷Ƿ ȸ Կ ־ ȭ ʿ伺 Ѵ. ׸ ׸ ִ.

׸ ȿ, ȥ ڸ , ٷ ¸ ϰ ִ. ٸ ǥؼ, ϳ԰ ϴ ӿ ְ ڽ ϰ ִ. (throne) ѷ ߽ ŷ ǰ ִ: ģ, , , , ִ. ٸ ǰ ִٸ, ׸ ȿ ִ Ե ǰ̴.

׸ ׷ Ŭ ۿ ִ ܺ Ŭ ȥ ü ں (all the works of mercy) ִ. ̷ Ͽ ŷ ǰ Ʒϰ, , ̰͵ (means of grace)ǰ Ѵ. 츮 ̷ ͵ ̶ Ī ̴.

̷ ͵ (the works of piety) ִ. ϳ Ǵ а ̸, ⵵ϴ , ݽϴ , Ŀ ϴ ϵ̴.

ָ ڵ ȿ ڱϿ ϰ ϰ, ŷ ǰ (good works) ִ ս ȸ Ѵ. ȸ ϳ̴. ϰ ִ ȸ ǥ̴.

׷⿡ ׸ Ǵ ϴ ̴. ϳ صȴ. ڵ (preachers) кϿ.

ŵ ȥ ϴ ܿ ƹ ϵ ÿ. ŵ. 󸶳 ߴ Ǵ ̷ ϵ鿡 󸶳 İ ƴ϶ ּ ȥ ߴ ߴİ Դϴ.

ִ Ͽ ε ȸϵ εϽÿ. ׸ Ͽ ׵ Ͻÿ. ŷ ̴ ׵ ָ Դϴ.

δ : ž ü

ݱ , Ѱ п ٰ ƴ϶, ü . ҰҸ ־. ڿ (organic relationship) ־. ϴ ϴ ̴. ߽ ϴ ȭ ٷ ü ̶ ִ. ̰ Ư¡̶ ϰڴ. ׷, ̷ Ư¡ Ǿ°? ̴ ôƮ ߰ſ ž ü ȯ ̷ٰ Ѵ.

ü ֱ , Ͽ. ⵵, ݽ, ȸ , ȯ , ɹ ׸ ǰ ߱ߴ ̴. ״ ΰ ( a gospel of human effort) Ǵ ΰ ھ (self-realization and commitment) ߴ ̴. ̴ Ǵ (Pelagianism or Semi-Pelagianism) ̴.

׷, ôƮ ߰ſ ž ü ׿ ȭ(Ethical Conversion) Դ. ôƮ (primary motivation) ޶. ſ ǹ ڱ ൿ, ٲ ̴. ׿ ״ ִ ع ̴. ϳԲ Ͻø ״ Ǿ, ΰ ȸ ȭ Ͽ ϰ ̴. ׷⿡ ־ ȥ ϱ Ͽ Ѵٴ ȭ Ű ̿, ÿ ȸ ȭ Ű ̴. ߵ, ־ ȥ Ѵٴ Ѵٴ Ͱ ȸ Ǹ ϴ ̴.

ߵ, ̷ ȭ (quality) ش. ϳ ȣ ̴. ̴ ϴ ǹ (ethics of obligation or deontological ethics) ƴ϶, ǹ ִ ص ̴ ٰ ൿ ൿ ̴.

, ׸ ϳ Ǵ ȣ(reflection or response)̴. ׷Ƿ , ׸ ٰŴ ŵ쳲, ϳ ȴٰ ϰڴ.