VI.

A.

ݱ .  DZ ķ Ļ ȸ Ͽ ȸ ݿ Ǿ ߴ. ̷ ְ ȸ ȸ ų ߴ ̷.

 ôƮ ȸ Ǿ,  ģ  ؼ ȵ ̴. Ǿ û , ȸ ̲ Ǿ , Ư , ׸  Ʒ ʸ ȸ ü(the religious societies)   ̷. ̽ŷ ոǰ ȸ  ʿȭ ߴ. ̷ Ͽ  ʵ, ð , ׸ ũ Ʈ(Clapham Sect) ߽ ڵ Ŀ 谡Ǿ.

̷  ȸ ƴµ, ׷ ȸ Ȱ ܼ ʿ ͸ ƴϴ. и ȸ Ұ ְ, װ Ͽ ȸ Ȱ ̰ ߴٰ . ׷ ȸ ൿ ϰ ̸ ȭ ո ٰ, ٽ ̾°? Ѱ, ϴ , ׸ ϳ Ҵ. ϸ .

ϳ ־ ¿ ŷѡ ̺й ȸ.ġ ȭ ð, ΰ å ڰ Ͽ ΰ Ͽ ϳ ϰ ൿϰ . ó θɰ Ͻ ϱ ̰ ϴ¡ ũî Ͽ ȸ.ġ Ȳ å ִ ش.

־ Ŵ ̴. ϳ ε µ ϳ ̿ ̾. ó ϳ ̿ ǥ ȭ ϼ ׿ ־ ȸ ǰ ȸ ۿ ٴ ڸ .

־ ϳ ϴÿ ̷ ̴. ׷ ÿ װ ǰ ִ ̱⵵ ϴ. ϳ ڵ DZ⸦ ٶ Ҹ Ѵٸ ȸ ġ . ϳ ǥ ϽõǾ ȵ ϳ ȸ, , ׸ ġ ģ. ϳ Ȱ ҿ ħϱ ̴.

̷ ȸ ü Ȱ ΰ?  ȸ Ȱ ʱ ޵Ʈ ȸ ҵ ʿ䰡 ִ.  װ ŵȸ, ȸ, ȸ, ׸ Ư ŵȸ ߱ ̴. ָ ̷ ޵Ʈ ü ο ȸൿǰ иϰ ǰ üȭ Ǿ ִٴ ̴.  ӿ ȸ װ ϴ ٸ ߴ.

ڵ鿡 Ѿ ̵ Ȳ ϰ ϴ ϰ ù ° ι ޴´. ״ ڵ ޵Ʈ Ͽ ϰ Ͽ Ÿ ϱ⵵ ߴ. ݸ鿡 ״ ǹ ڼ ʰ Ǿå Ǿ Ʈ 뿩ݰ (lending-stock) α׷ ߴ. ׸ ڵ 湮Ͽ ̰, ٺ å ҡ ϰ ̶ å Ͽ ϱ⵵ ߴ. ׷ ̷ 򿡼 ġ ʰ ǰ ̶ åڸ Ǹ ǥϸ ׷ ͵ Ϸ ܰα ư.

ȸ ȣȰ Ҿ  Ư¡ ̷ Ȱ ̴. ״ ̵ б ƴ϶ ÿ ܵ ε ؼ ߰ б ߰, а Ͽ 鿡Ե ְ ڸ ִ ϱ⵵ ߴ. ׷ Ȱ ־ ߽ؾ åǽ ϱ Ϸ ߴ ǽ а ̶ ̴. װ б Ų ߿ κ̴.

ƴ. ޵Ʈ ҿ Ǿ ִ ڵ 湮Ͽ ׵鿡 ο ǹ̿ Ҿ ־ ׵鿡 ʿ ǰ , ȣ, ź , 鿡 ȣ Ȱ ߴ. ׷ ̷ ʰ ư Ź̳ θ ˸ Ǹ ǥϿ ߵ ˹߽Ű ǽ ϱ Ͽ Ҵ. ̷ ˷ Ͽ忡 ߴ ġ ̷ ߴ.

޵ 󿡵 Ͽ. , Ŀ ڷ Ȱ ִ ȸ οϿ ũ Ͽ. ־ 翴. ׸Ͽ Ͽ ó ع ġ⵵ ߴ.

뿹ع濡 ū Ͽ. ״ 뿹鿡 ʸ Ǯ, ε Բ ְ ߴ. ׸ б ݿ ʿ  ߴ. ׷ ׷ ġ ʰ Ȱ åڸ ظ ϰ ߴ. ̷ ͺ װ 뿹ع ū 뿹ع Ͽ ¸ ϱ Ȱ ° ׵ ϵ ־ٴ ̴. ǥ̴.

 ̷ ȸ Ȱ 18⿡ ŵ ŵξ, 19⿡ . ļյ ׷ ġ ̰ ϼ Ǿ. ǵ ϸ .

԰ Ȥ ũ Ͽ 1774⿡ ʡ(1774 Gapl Act) ̷ Ǿ. װ ֹ̾ ¡ Ǿ, 鿡Դ ҵǰ Ǿ, ڵ ǰ õǰ Ǿ. Ͽ Ű 1866⿡ Ͽ ȸ ñ µǰ ִ.

θ鿡 ū ̷ 1870⿡ б Ǿ ʵб ǹ ǰ Ǿ. ׷ ֵ õ ̰ õ ǿ. ũ ۵ б  ʵб ǹ ̲ ʼ̶ ֱ ̴. б ģ . б âڴ ƴϾ ȸ ־ װ , ޵Ʈ װ ״ ̴.

1807 뿹Ÿ 1833 뿹ع ɡ ī Ѿ ϳ ȯ ̷ ̾. ̷ ¸ ̲ κ ũ Ʈ ȸν  ڵ̾. ׵ 뿹ع  ι ̴. ׿ ģ տ ̹ ޵Ǿ.

׽ 뵿 ع濡 Ȱ ߴ. ȵ 뵿ڵ Ͽ ְ 뿴. , , ϼ , ׸ ε ޿ ׽ ġ鵵 ǹ̰ . ׽ ̷ ŵ ְ ž̾. ׷ ž  깰̾.

߽  ű ؿܼ ŵ ũ ״. Ž 18 ȸ ߷ Ǿ, 19 Ǿ ߴ. ̸ ij ؿ ü ֹε ȸ ȸ ۾̶ Ǽ ȭ Ͽµ, ̴  Ư Ȯ̾ ̴.