II. 18 

A.  18

18 ſ ñ⿴. Ư 18 50 ̷ 򰡸 ޱ⿡ ߴ. ȸϴ 1738⿡ Ŭ(Berkeley) ߴ١ ߴ. ο ̷ Ͽߴ. ׸Ͽ Ŭ ſ ¡İ ڰ Ÿ ִ١ ū ǥߴ. Ƿ 18 Ǿ ־, Ǿ Ȱ ־.

߱ϴ  ģ DZ Ǿ ̷ 18 Ȳ ̴.  ̶ ̷ ô Ȳ ̴,  ̷ ȭ ߴ뼺 ١ ø(John S. Simon) Ÿϴ ϰڴ.

1. ġ Ȳ

(George) հ ġ δ. ׵ ġ ȸ, , Ȳ ģ ɴ νϱ ̴. ׷ 1 2 (L. E. Elliott-Binns) Ǹ εߴٰ Ѵ. ̷ ġ Ͽ ġ, ȸ, ̴. (John Brown) ڻ 2 ġϿ ô µ (Estimate of the Manners and Principles of the Times) å µ ű⿡ ״ ô븦 ġ, ׸ ̱ Ư¡ ̷ ñ⡱ ߴ.

ó 18 ó 60 Ƿ , , , Ӽ ġ Ϲ 뿴. ̷ ϵ ñ⿡ ε巯 ι̾ (Robert Walpole)̾. ״ 1 2 ؿ 1721 1742 ϸ鼭 ġ ֵߴ. 1 Ͽ ¾ Ǿ⿡ ̹̿ 𸣴 ñ⿡ ־ ߴ Ƿ Ǿ ̴. ׸Ͽ 18 ô Ī⵵ Ѵ. տ ֵǰ ִ ǿ̰ ġ̾.

̷ ġ Ͽ Ǿ. ׷ ̷ Ÿ´. ġ Ͽ ġ ıǰ ǿ ̾. ׷ ġ Ͽ ̰ üȭ д Ͽ ǥ , ġ ݼ ġ ϰ Ž彺 ο⸦ ϴ ֱ״(Whig) ġ ̹ ӱ ־ ͵ ̾.

Ű(W. E. H. Lecky) ϸ, ȸ ־ ̷ д ñ⿡ ־ ƴϾ. Ű ȸǿ д (Charles) 2 ġϿ ̹ ϰ Ǿٰ Ѵ. װ ӽ(James) 2 ġϿ 1688 Ŀ ӵǾ ԰ 1 7 (Septennial Act) ؾ ٴ ̴. ׷ ұϰ и ̰ ö å å ̴.

״ ƴϸ ¿ ִٰ Ͼ. ׸Ͽ ڸ ġ Ģ Ͽ. ״ ڴ ְ ߰, ׵ ¢ ̸ ׻ ̶ ⵢ̸ غ ΰ ־. ״ ű հ տ 峳ϱ⸦ Ͽ Ӹ ƴ϶, ġ ȿ κ ȸǿ к ޾, ȸ ̷ ׿ żǾ ־. ϸ ̰ ƴϰ Űƺ ̾, Ű Ȱϰ ߺ ó õϰ ̾. ״ ̾ İ ϴ ڿٰ Ѵ.

̷ ӿ ġ ϰ ߺϰ . ׸Ͽ ǿ ǸŰ Ÿ(The Times of London) DZ⵵ , ǿ õ ġڱ⵵ ߴ. üʵ(Chesterfield) ڱ Ƶ 2,500 Ŀ Ͽ ǿ Ÿ DZ⵵ ߴ.

ȸǿ 鿡  ̾. õ (Old Sarum) ű ̳ ڰ µ 2 ǿ ȸ °, ü(Manchester)ó α ϰ ִ ū ߽ ǿ . 1754 10 2 ϱ⿡ õ Ͽ.

̳ ڰ µ ǿ ȸ õ뿡 Ҵ. ѷ ũ ձ ̾. . ־µ ߾ӿ 200ߵ ٸ ձ ̷ ѷο ־.

翡(Looe) ׸ ȸ ġ еǾ 4 ǿ ȸ ݸ, (Wales) õ ܿ 1 ǿ ȸ ִ ؼ Ǹ ִ.

̷ ¿ ε Ҽ ڵ Ż ̾. ģô̰ų ű ǥ ϰ ִ ڿԴ ַκ (sinecure post) Ǿ. ׷ ε ġȰ̶ ȵ ϰ Ҽ ڵ ׵鿡 ΰ , , ǹ ϰ ϸ ¡, , (stocks), ä , ׸ ֱ⸦ ϴ ̷ ־. ͵ ̼ ô롱 ںϸ, 󡱶 18 Ư¡ ʵ̾

̵ ġ µ ʿ䰡 ִ. (L. E. Elliott-Binns) ϸ, ô뿡 ־ ġ ϰ ϸ ׵ ޼ ִٴ ־ٰ Ѵ. 麻(Gibbon) ˷ ִ Ͽ: θ ִ پ ĵ ߵ鿡 , öڵ鿡Դ , ׸ ġ鿡Դ νĵǾ. Ŀ(Hooker) 2 ϱ, ġ ġ Ȱ ġ ִٰ , ġ Ȱ ǵ ġ ȹ ١ ִ. ׷ 18 ġε ߴ°? ׵ , Ȯ ϸ ׵ Ȯ ׵ Ŀڵ鿡 ִ Ͽ. ̷ ؼ Ȳκп ڼ ٷ ̴.

극(Bready) ô ġ ̷ ô븦 ǥϴ Ͽ. ׿ ϸ ô븦 ǥϴ ̱ǿ, װ ġ ںϰ ǥǾٴ ̴. ״ 18 ġε (the survival of fittest) ȭϰ ȭϴ Դµ, ׵ ǹ ׷ϸ ȥ ̽ŷ ڿ װ ̱ Բ ̻ϰԵ īο , ǿ , ׸ Ϸ¿ ģϰ ٰ Ѵ.

ó 18, Ư ߹ ġ ̳ з ձ ʿ ϰ ־. ׷ ེԵ 18Ⱑ DZ ο İ ó Ÿ ־, ȸ и Ҹ Ÿ ־. 극 ̷ ͵ ο ھſ ִ.

2. ȸ Ȳ

. 뵿 ް

콺(Robert F. Wearmouth) ϸ 18 ȸ ̾. ε ū ϰ ־µ ׵ ָ, , , Ұ ô޷Ȱ Ǿ, 뵿ȯ, ׸ ׾ ó ȯ濡 ó ־.

ټ óϰ , ް ȭ ε Ż ȭ ֿ̾. ں ڷ° ȭ ҳε ξ ε Ͽ ¿ Ұ ߴ. Դٰ ȭ ۾ ߸Ǿ ճ뵿 뵿 üǸ鼭 Ǿ ڴ ð Ǿ 뵿ڵ ӱ Ǿ. 籹 , ׸ ο å ǥ̶ ε ش ڵ Ȳ ȭ ״.

̷ ָ ̰ Ÿ ׷ٰ ָ ̰ Ÿ ״ ״ ʾҴ.

ÿ ׵ ʰų ׵ ̶ Ϲ̾. ׷ ׵ ϴٴ ǿ Ǹ ̶ ݹߵ ׷ ׸ ̾. ׵鿡Դ ڸ . ó ñ⿡ Ǿ ȸ ū .

뵿 ̷ Ǿ 뵿 ߴ. ε ̷ . ׵ Ϸ翡 1Ǹ(shilling) Ϸ絵 1 Ϸ翡 16 17ð 뿹ó ߴ. ׸ İų Ͽ ʰ Ǹ ذ Ǿ Կ . 鵵 η ۿ ̾ äź۾ Ͽ. ׵ ݽ ä ó ׹߷ ź 6 21 Ƹٿ Ӱ ؾ ߴ. ȿ Ʊ⸦ ߴµ Ʊ ׳ ĿƮ ӿ ¾ ۿ .

̵ Ȥ 뵿 и ȸ ̾. 5-6 ̸ ̵ ̳ ź ܿ ϸ Ϸ 12-13ð ؾ ߰ . ̰߰ ˴̷ ˰ ϴ ϱ⵵ ߴ. ҳ ҳ (apprentice) Ʒ ֵ鿡 뿹ó ȷ ͵ ū ƴ .

̷ 뵿 , Ǿ, 뵿ڵ- Ư ̵- ΰ 뵿ȯ ӱ Ư ܾų ǰ ǰ Ͼ ߻߰ ߵ ൿ ߴ. ̷ װŸ Ϸ ϱ ٴ ̷ ൿ ı ÿ Ưǿ Ͽ ϰ ϰ ֵڵ ߹ ٽȴ.

̷ Ȳ ַ ϰ ȣϴµ ̾, ȸ- 񱹱 - ȸ Ӽå̾. ׷ 18 ̸ 뵿ڵ ް Ǿ, ׵鿡 Ȯ Ǿ. (E. Dorothy Marshall) ó  εǰ ̾ иϴ ϰڴ.

.

18 ü Ҿ ġٵ Ȥϰ ־. ġ ߰ Ҽ и ʾ Ȥ߰ Ǽ ̷ .

󸶳 Ȥ ̾° (J. E. T. Rogers) ñ ߸ ̶͡ Ϳ 巯. ˿ شǴ ׸ 200 Ѿ. ̴ ַ Ư ȣ ġ. ׸ ַ ũ ټ ̷ ־µ, ̷ ó Ư ε鿡 ش ͵̾. ε ָ ׷ ۿ ϰų üǾ ȵǾ.

ܿ ϴ Ÿ ʾҴ. ̰ Ȥ ٸ ȵǾ. ׿ ִ ȣ縦 ŭ ִ ҳ ϰ ̿Ͽ ó ־.

ü ̾ Ⱦ . κ Ȯ ߴ. ׵ , , , ǰ Ͽ. ׸ Ǹϰ Ͼϸ Ͽ ̵ ì, Ǯ ִ ޾ ÷ȴ. ε 1 ް ߵ鿡 Ű⵵ ߴ. ε ûξڵ鿡 ϱ⵵ ̵ ްų ģ Ŀ ״ Ǿ ־ ߴ.

ʿߴ. Ǿ ־ ο Ͽ Ĺ Ϲ ºߴ. డ Բ Ǿ ֱ⵵ ߰, ڵ鿡 ε Ǿ. ⸦ ð  ִ ãƺ . (Marshalsea) Ҹ 湮ϰ ! ΰ̶ ġ. ׷ , ׷ ϴٴ! 1753 2 3 ϱ⿡ Ͽ. ̷ ҵ ڶ󳪴 ½̸ ° ˸ Ǵ ̱⵵ ߴ.

־ ȤԵ ǥϱⰡ . ˼ ־ ޵Ʈ Ϸ(Thomas Taylor) ݴ ̸ ش. ռ ġ Ǫְ ū Į ߶ ε ū ߶ ´ٰ Ѵ. Ư ݿ˸ ڿԴ ε ִ ° ӿ װ Ͽ Ը ϰ ߴ.  ߰ ο ΰ ſ ̳ 赢̸ ÷ װ ϱ⵵ ߴ. ε ݿ˸ ε ȭ ϵ ־.

̷ ü迡 Ǿ ִ μ ȸ ƹ ݴ Ҹ ų å ʰ ־. ׷ 18Ⱑ ƿ Կ κ ȭǾ ü ô ̷. ̿  ؼ IV V忡 ڼϰ ٷ ̴.

. 뿹

18 ġ а ׵ Ȯ ȸ ν ״. ׷ ׵ θ Ȳȭ Ų 뿹Ÿſ . 뿹ŸŴ 18 ִ ĵ޷ν ü ־ ΰ̰ ̱⵵ , װ μ̰ Ļ ǵ ߴٴµ ɰ ־. 뿹ŸŴ ° Ȥ, , , ׸ å ߴ ̴.

1500 16 ߿ ̷ 뿹Ÿ Դ. ׸ ε鿡 뿹Ÿ ־ ƮƮ (The Treaty of Utrecht) ϴ 1713 ƽÿ(Asiento) Ư㸦 ȹ ϰ Ǿ. û θ . ׸Ͽ ȣ ġ Ȱ ǥ Ǿ. ׷ Ű ǥ ġ Ŵ ʼҰϰ ΰ ߴ. װ ҷ Ų ŽŰ ΰ ׸ 뵿 ȭ 18 ġ ֿ ߴ ̴.

ϱ , , , ׸ å θ Ǿ. ̷ ̵ ̷ ̵ ɸ Ͽ ڹ谡 ̳ ٸ ҷ ġߴٰ ּ Ⱦ Ѱ. νŸŸŰ Ⱦϰ Ǿ ̴.

̷ ̷ ġ 뿹鿡 ε ó縦 ִ. ϰ ϱ⿡ Ǿ. ξ ٰ Ѵ. 뿹 Ѿ ̳ ä ݿ ־ , ׸ ߴ. ߿ 6 1 ÷ ߴµ Ͽ װ Ǿ ߵ ڻ ϱ⵵ Ͽ.

׸ ī ؾȿ ȹ Ż, ȭ, Ż ʿ Ǿ. ׷ ų ټ ī ıǾ. ̷ 18⿡ ī ۵ Ȯ Ʋ . (Horace Walpole) 1750 2 25Ͽ (Horace Mann) 濡 ϱ, 츮 Ĺ ų 46,000 ȷ ϴ١ ߴ.

ٴ ۵ 뿹ڵ ħ ϰ Ǿ ׵ Ű ȴٴ ̴ ̾. κ ƹ ͵ ߰ ʸ ް ؼҼ̸ ǰ ȥ Ǹ ߴ. ä ٹݻ翴.

üٴ μ ǵ 18 ȸ Ȱ Ȳȭ ״. ׷ پ µ Ͽ. 18⿡ 뿹Ÿ Ҿ ġ Ÿŵ Բ ° Ǿ. տ ġ ȰǾ а 뵿ڵ Ƹ޸ī ֵ鿡 Ⱦ ѱ ׹̾. Ҹ ̳ ̵ ֵ ڿ. ׵ å ձ濡 .

ǰ(The South Sea Bubble) ǰ ִ ϰ ǵ . ׿ ϸ ǥδ Ư ׷ ǽ ô ڳ̴. ʴ Ž ڵ ϰ Ʊ ̾ٴ ̴. ó ġ ȸ Ȳȭ ״. Ž θ ׸ dz ұ ̴.

׷ ̷ ؾǿ ȸ µ ߴ° . ϰԵ 뿹Ÿſ ƹ ݴ ޾Ƶ鿴. ϰ ͹ư(Warburton) Ͽ Ҹ ȿ ų ȸ ö ݴ뿡 δƴ. ͹ư ϱ ȸ ټ ȸ ش ƴϿ.

Դٰ ε ڵ ׵ Ű 뿹ع ϴ ġ ϰ ־ Ǯ 뿹عڵ 10,000 Ŀ ̻ ̵濡 ־ ־ 뿹Ÿ 뿹ع ƴϾ. ׷ ̷ Ҹ ġ 1807⿡ ȸ ǰ Ǿ 1833⿡ ô޵Ǿ. (Maldwyn Edward) , Ư ε ٰ̾ Ѵ.

. ȯ

18 ʸ Ҹϴ ñ⡱ ߴ. ׿ ϸ ̵ ȣ , ׸ ó иϰ â ǥǴ ٴ ̴. ׷ ñ⿡ ̵鿡 ̾ شٰ Ͽ. ϱ 4 3 15 ׾. 74.5% ̾.

ñ⸦ ñ ε ͸ ƴϾ. ׵ ̷ ߴٴ ã ̴. ̳ ڵ ־ ڳ б ϰ ־.

ڳ ׷ ġǾ ־ ̴. ϳ ߱ ٴ ̰ ٸ ϳ ̵ ϸ б ð ؼ ȴٴ ǽ̾.

б(public school) б ־µ ̴ Ư Ȥ ڳ̳ ٴ ִ ̾.  Ϲ ϱ Ϲ ߱ Ű ڼб(charity schools), 缳 α б(privately endowed schools), ڰ 濵ϴ б (dames schools), ׸ 񱹱 ׵ ž ϱ Ҽ ̾.

ڼб 1698⿡ ۵Ǿµ ȸ(The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge) Ȱϰ 18 ߿ 5,000 ̸ Ų ȴ. ڼб 뵿 ȸ Ϸ ù ° ü õ Ǹ ϰ ִٰ ڴ. ׷ ̵ б ߰, б, , , ׸ ܼ ϱ, ڵ ׵ տ ǰ Կ ǿ ư ߴ ϰڴ.

ڼб ׻ 뵵ÿ ڸ ־ٸ (Dames Schools) ð ־. б ǰ ִ ϱ⵵ ϰ ǰ ųడ ð ̵ ߴ. ׳ ڽ ƴ ׳ ħ̳ ȿ . б(grammar schools) 18⿡ ټ Ͽ, ڰ ̷ νϿ. 1734 ܿ б л ־. 縳 α б α ì ְ б ׵ ǿ Ű (sinecure) ɲ۵ DZ ʻ̾, Ҽ 񱹱 б ǥذ ž ǥ ϱ Ͽ ϸ ߿ ִ ̾.

̷ ܿ ̵ ŵ ϰ ֿ ֹ ׷ ʿ伺 ƴߴٴµ ־ . ü ǰ ڳ ϸ б ð ؼ ȴٴ ̾. 1723⿡ ǵ(Bernard Mandeville) ׷ Ȳ ش.

б , ׸ ׵ ̷ ڰ 䱸Ǵ ڵ鿡Դ ſ ʿϴ. ׷ ̷ , Ϸ Ϸ 뵿 Ͽ ϴ 鿡Դ װ͵ ϱ . ؼҼ ̵ θ б ̷ ϳ, ÿ ׵ ð ִ. ׷Ƿ ڳ å Һϴ ð ׸ŭ ȸ ð Ҿ ̴. ϴ Ϳ б ̴. ׸ ҳ ̷ Ҽ ־ 뵿 ϰ ̴. , ġ, ο Ȳ ӿ Ϸ Ϸ縦 ϴ Ͽ ư Ŀ γ ְ ̴.

18 ־ ؼ ̷ ǽ ʿߴ.

̷ Ȳ ϱ ȸ ü, Ư ȸ 18 ó ϱ ü ذ ſ ̾. ̷ 1833⿡ ֱ ߰ 1870⿡ ʵб ǹ ذ Ǿµ, ̿  ҿ ũٸƮ(Manfred Marquardt) ϰ ִ: Ĵε Ŀ б ħ 1870 б ϰ ϴ ״.

. ߵ , ,

18⸦ ֿ ׸ ñ Ư¡ ο ̴. ̿ ְ ִ: 18 ũ̼ ΰ ΰ ̰ ȣϴ ͵̾. ҹϰ ȸ ֿ Ǿ ־ ߽ο ȣ .

Ű 18 ߿ ߴ, ū ء ߴ. ׷ ش ٸ ȸ ó Ǿ. ϻᰡ Ǿ ̷ ټ ̾. 1725⿡ (gin) Ǹϴ 6,000 Ǿ.

ִ ε鿡Ը ѵ ƴ϶ Ʈ ߿ ƴ. ׸Ͽ ϸ ȸǿ ȸ ȸǴ ־. ׸ ȥ ϸ ڵ ø ְ ϱ ħ ٰ Ѵ. ڵ ܰ ƴϾ . ü(Chester) ȸ ȸ ǹ ߿ ٴ ڽ ȣߴٰ Ѵ.

̷ ְ ϻ翡 ģ ش ̷ . ϰ ΰ Ǿ. 극 1720-1750 ȸ ȭ ̶ Ѵ. ׿ ϸ ȸ ̸ ÿ μ ô Ÿ ô ǥ̴. ̿ ΰ ɰ νϿ ŸŸ Ű 1736 1743⿡ ȿ .

ô̶ Ǽ 񵵴 ݿǾ Ÿ ߰ϰ ȴ. ô ֿ 輺, , μ, ڼ, ĥ Ư ־ ַ ̴ Ȳ ׸ Ҹ 迴. ׷ ͵ ִ µ鿡 ʹ μ, ִ ̷ ΰ μ ° ƴ . ׷ 18 ׷ ʰ ϴ ȭ ϰ ־. α ִ . Ӹ Ǹ ڰ º ڰ Ǵ ̾. 18 ̰ . 尩 ä ȣġ տ ߴ ̴. ̷ ȯȣߴ. ׵鿡Դ .

̿ Բ ô븦 dz ϳ ̾. ̾. Ǿ ڰ á Ŭ ǰ ұ̾. Ʈ(Mountford) ó ڿ Ұ ڻ ڵ鵵 ű⿡ . (Pelham) ߵڷ ҹ ǥڿ. ̷ Ž忡 ε ̾ Ž Ҵ. ΰ ε ̸ ߱ ִ. 18 ʹݿ δ ÷ 浿 ̱ ̿ߴ ̴. ͹ν ٸ Ǽ(1736)̳ ڹ Ǹ(1753) ַ õ ̾.

18 ʹݰ ߹ ̷ ΰ Ž ô븦 ϴ Ҹ ʴ ñ⿴. ׷ ׷ £ ߿  ȥ 縸鼭 Ϻϱ ߴ. 1751 (gin) ô롯 18 Ĺݱ⿡ ο ھŰ ΰ ǽ ó Ƿ ѷߴ.

3. Ȳ

տ 18 , ġ ȸ ־. ׷ٸ ׷ ͵ ϰ ִ° . ô밡 Ǿ ô ˾ǻ Ÿ θ Ǵϴ ʹ ǻ̴. ߽Ͽ ϴ ̴. ׷ üƮ(W. H. Fitchett) 18 󸶳 ŸϿ° ˷ о߸ Ǵ ƴ϶ , ô , ư ڵ Ǵϸ ȴٰ Ͽ. 18 򰡴 ǰ ̶ ġ ִ. ȸ ߵ , ϻ źεǾ, Ǿ. ׸ ڵ Ÿ̸ Ǿ, ׵ ǹ ¸ Ͽ. ȸ 񱹱 ȸȰ ̾. ī˶(Carlyle) ̷ 18 Ȳ ¡ ǥ ߴ.

18 ȸ, Ư ̷ ° ¸ ׸ ũ ΰ ο Ǿٰ ִ. ϳ ̿ ٸ ϳ ̽ŷ(Deism) ̴.

ȸ ϰ ο û û, 漺 ź ߹, ׸ ȸ ̶ Ѵ. û ϱ ġ Ư Ϸ(The Act of Uniformity) ɻ ġ 2,000 ѱ Ǿµ ߹ ü 20% شǾ. ߿ ׸(J. R. Green) ó ߹ ׵ ȸ н ְ Ȱ ι̾١. ߹ ôκ ȸ Ȱ Ȱϰ ߿ ĸ ߹ ̾١ ־. ° 1689 1690⿡ ߻ߴ. 3(William III) å ʴ ؿ 8 ڿ 400 Ѵ ڵ 漺(The Oath of Allegiance) źϿ ߹ ϰ Ǿ ̴. ̵ ߿ ֱ ũƮ(Sancroft), ȥ ۰ ۰ (Ken), ׸ ź ο(William Law) ־. ° Ͽ Ͱ ڰ ŵǾ. (flaming) ڰ ŵ ̾. °ϰ ʴ ȸ, ̱ڵ鸸 Ǿ žĵ Ǿ. ° 1709 11 ڵ ϱ 19 ߿ ȸǸ ̴. ̷ Ͽ ڿ Ѱ ׵ ѱ Ǿ. ̷ ذ ׿ ǵ ħü Ǿ ̴.

ȸ Ÿ ̲ ٸ ϳ ̽ŷ̾. ̽ŷ ÷а ׸ ſ Ͽ ڿÿ ̼ Ͽ. ׸Ͽ ̽ŷ ΰ ӿ Ͻô μ ϳ ϴð ϴ Ȳݴٸ μŹ ߷ȴ. ̷ ̽ŷ ߼ ϰ Ͱ ȭ ž ä õ̰ ִ ʿ ׵鿡 ϰ Ÿ ɷ ̹ ǵǾ, ̷ ̽ŷڵ ־ ̾. ׷Ƿ ̽ŷڵó ̽ŷ Ǿ . ׸Ͽ ֵDZ⿡ ̸. ׷ ̳ ü ðǰ Ǿ âָ ȥ ݹ Ƿ Ҹ ̼ ȳڷ ǥ Ǿ. ̽ŷ ո õ ǥ Ʒ ǰ ־ ̴. ̷ Ϸ ո Ǿ ȴ. Ŀ(John Baker) õ(Huntingdon) 翡 ź Ͽ: óϰ ó Ǿ ִ. ̼ ȭǰ Űȭ ǰ ִ. ó ڿ ׷ ΰ ȸ ġϸ ó ʿ並 ɷ ̾.

̷ ȸ ڵ Ƿ ȹ, ׸ ì⿡ ־ ־. (Samuel Johnson) 1775 ݿϿ ϱ, нİ . ȸ ȸ ִ δ ̴١ Ͽ. ׸Ͽ ڰ װų ӹϰ Ǹ ȸ ߱ϴ ѹ ҵ . (Thomas Newton) ڻ 1761⿡ ij ۿ ´.

ũ ֱ ӹϿ ִ ħ ѱ ϰ ִٴ Ͽ ˸ ǹ մϴ. Ǵ ȸ ģ ȣǰ û Ÿ DZ⸦ ٶ Ҹϸ ŷϴ Դϴ.

ó κٴ ġ ٿ ׵ ȹߴ. ̷ ġ и Ÿ ǥô ַ ӱ, 巯.

ȸ д Ͽ ǵǰ ݴ翡 ε ־ ȸ д Ѳ ȴ. ̷ ؾǵ ǵǰ εǾ ϴ ȸǰ Ǿ ־, ȸ ġϴ ׷ ְ ڵ̾ ̴. ȥ ڸ ϰ ߴ. ݸ鿡 ֱ ڵ ֿ Ȱ ġ ϰ ִ ì, ټ ڵ 20 60 Ŀ ̾. ֱ ȸ Ѵ ڵ 200谡 Ѿٰ Ѵ.

̵κ ε ־ڴ°? ֵ(Joseph Addison) ϸ ο ġϸ鼭 ܾϱ, ״ κ ġ ؼ ؼ ١ ߴ. ׷ ڵ ٸ ι ֱ ׵ ؼҼ ׵ ϰ ִ ٸ ڵ鿡 ̹ߴ.

̷ ó غϴµ ۿ . ̿  ְ Ǿ ־ ƴ . ̷ ӿ ڱ Ű ߴ. ״ ȸ ʾҴ ߵ ǽ б װ ο ̸ ҷ ״. ׸(J. R. Green) ޵Ʈ  ڵ ߰ ϴ ħ ߴ١ ߴ.