V. ȸ ڵ Ȱ



üƮ 1703 1903 û ޶ ǡ̶ ߴ. 18ʹ ޸ 19⿡ ȸ ־. 19 ȿ ڿ Ư οǰ, 뵿ð Ѱ谡 , κ ȣ å Ǿ ְȯ Ǿ. عǾ 뿹Ÿŵ Ǿ. ׸ ü ֹε ȸ ȭ ϰ Ǿ ̴.

̷ ȸ 1739  . ȸڵ Ͽ(John Howard), ũ(Robert Raikes), (William Willberforce), ׽(Lord Shaftesbury), ׸ ij(William Carey) Ư  ܽŰ Ұ ̶ Ѵ. ׵ ٿ Ҽ ļյ̱ ̶ ̴.

ް Ǵ ǥ ־ ȸ Ǿ Ѵٰ Ͼ. ׸ ׸ ϴ ڵ鿡 ׷ ƴ. ׷⿡  ȥ ȸ ̷ ־. ׷  Ѹ ȸ Ѱ 19 ̸ ι Ű ޵Ʈ Ŀ ȸ ع̶ ŵΰ ߴ ̴.

18⿡ ȸ Ծ ȸ ŵ ־ ޹ħ ϼ 19⿡, ׸ Ȥ ļյ ؼ .

A. Ͽ(John Howard, 1726-1790)

Ͽ ƹ Ī ޴´. 18 ⿡ ΰ ˼١ Ͻ ֵ ϱ Ȳ ġ ̷ Ǿ ̴.

޵Ʈ ġ ϰ ̷ ̴. ׷ ޹ħ ٺ ̷ ݼ ÷ Ͽ ̾. ׷ٰ Ͽ ȭ ʴ´. ״ Ͽ ξ ҿ ߰, Ͽ ̸ ̾ ̴. Ͽ ΰ ִ ߰ϸ װ ϶󡯴 ޾ ü ȸ ִ. ״ 1787 6 28Ͽ (Dublin) ͺ並 , ڽ ģ ȭ 󸶳 ο Ǿ° ģ (Alexander Knox) ϵ ִ. Ͽ带 18  ι ̶ ϰ ִµ, ̴ Ͽ 巯ִ ̶ ϰڴ.

Ͽ ڷμ װ 1773⿡ (Bedford) (high sheriff) Ӹ Ǿ. װ ¿ ã ȸ ϸ ¸ ϰ Ǿ ̴. ״ ҵ ó ° ϱ ٴ ߰Ͽ. ׸Ͽ ״ ڷ 1774 3 4Ͽ Ͽ ϰ Ͽ ȸ ׿ Ͽ ȸ 1774 ʡ(1774 Gaol Act) ̲ ´. װ ֹ ̾ ¡ Ǿ, 鿡Դ ҵǰ Ǿ, ׸ ڵ ǰ õǾ. ȹ õ ̾.

׷ Ͽ ̰ . ׸Ͽ ״ 1775-1776 ҵ ߴ. ׸ ҿ Ȳ Ͽ 1777 4 5Ͽ (The State of Prison) å ǻ θ ˸ ҿ ϰ ˱Ͽ. å ź Ѱ ׸ µ鿡 м ϵ Ǿ ִ. å еǾ Դ Ǿ. ʹ ݽ 󿡼 å DZ⵵ ߴ. å Ͽ ڷ λǾ. ׸ å (Hepworth Dixon) ó (Prison Science) âø ̷ ε ִ. ó մϰ Ģ ٰŸ ־ ̴.

̷ Ͽ Ȱ ޾ ȸ 1778 1781 ʸ ΰ ״. Ͽ Ŀ ȸ ߴµ, ¿ ڷ ô ˻ ϱ ؼ . 1789 2 ֿ ˿鿡 Ϸ Ȳ Ұ(An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe and Aditional Remarks on the Present State of Prisons in Great Britain and Ireland)̶ ° åڰ ⰣǾ. ó å μ ȷ ҿ ˹߽״.

Ͽ ڽ ° å Ϸ þƷ Ⱦ. ׷ ƽԵ Ϸ ٴ ˰ ״ ϱ, 帳ϴ. ׸ Ҹ߾ٰ ֽʽÿ. Ƹ 󿡼 ٽ Դϴ. ׷ ϰ ȴٸ Ͻϴ١ ߴ. Ͽ ڽ ð ߴ ϴ. ״ 1790 1 20Ͽ þ ȸ ҳฦ ȣϴ Ǽ þ ̼(Kherson) 64 ̷ .

״ ð, , ׸ ߴ. ״ ٸ Ҹ ϰ ϴ 17 ߰ ҵ ̳ ˻ߴ. ߿ ״ 50,000 ̻ ߰, ä ڽ 30,000 Ŀ带 Ͽ . ״ ΰ ü Ȱ ϱ⵵ , 3ÿ Ͼ Ϸ翡 40 ϸ鼭 ô޷ ߰ ؾ ߴ.

̷ Ͽ ȣҷ ȥ ߱⿡ ߵ ݿ ǸǾ ٿ (St. Pauls Cathedral) տ ִٰ Ѵ. ׸ ϰ 1866 Ͽ ȸ(Englands Howard Association) Ǿ, 41 Ŀ ͡(The Penal Reform League) Ǿ. 1921 Ͽ ͡ (The Howard League for Penal Reform)̶ Ī Ͽ ϳ յǾ ñ ϸ鼭 Ͽ Ű Ű ִ. ܿ Ͽ ȸ Ǿ α Ȱ Ȱ ϰ ִ.

Ƿ ó, Ʋ(A County Gentleman)̿, ȸ ִ ̸, ڸǾ ְ, ü Ͽ ұ ǽ ȥ Ҵٴ ̶ ١ ϰڴ.

̷ Ͽ Ȱ Ҿ ϼҿ ģ ٸ ڵ Ȱ ʿ䰡 ִ. 1787 6 ʿ ߸ ʹ ӵǾ Դ١ ȸ Ͽ. ׸ ״ ΰǴ ׸ Ű ιи(Romily) Ų佬(Mackintosh) õ Ŀߴ. (Elizabeth Fry) Ȱ ڽ(T. Fowell Buxton) ҿ ϴ Ͽ ȸ Ȱ Ͽ 1821⿡ ϼϴ Ǿ. ϱ, ħ ϼҵǰ ļյ ̾١ ߴ.

ó  ڵ Ȱ ̲ αǽ忡 ū ̷.