D. 뵿 ع ׽(Lord Shaftesbury, 1801-1885)

׽ ̿ ̵ عڡ ȣĪѴ. Ƿ ׽ Թ 뵿ڵ ֱ 뵿ڵ ٸ . ׵ 뵿 ð մ ѵ ϱ ȯ ӿ ߸ 뿹ó ؾ ߴ.

Ƶ 뵿 Ư ɰ . ֵ 뵿 ̿Ϸ ̿ ִ ̵ Բ θ鵵 ʴ ̿ߴ. ׸ ̿ ִ ̰ ִ 鿡Դ 󿡼 ܵǴ Ƶ뵿 ״. 6-7 ̷ Ǿµ δ 3-4 ̿ 뵿 ϱ⵵ ߴ.

1832 8 Ͽ ȸ ϸ ̵ Ϸ 뵿ð 13-16ð̾. и 30 Ļ ð ϰ õ ƴ 24ð ؾ ߴ. ̸ 2 Ͽ 12ð ϰ ϸ 24ð ϴ ־. ħ뿡 ٸ ħ . 뵿 ̵ ħ ٴڿ ׳ ߴٰ Ѵ. ׸Ͽ ׵ Ļ絵 Ÿ ۿ . Ͼ ð Ͼ ä δ âǸ ֱ⵵ ߴ. Ƹ(Robert Arnot) ȸ ϱ, ħ ҳ ħ뿡 Ź ä ä ϰ ű⿡ ԰ ߴµ ׷ ־١ ߴ. ҳ鵵 ߴ. ۾ ߿ ϸ ä Ÿ ̾. ̵ Ļ ߿ ̴ ۾ƾ ߴ. ׵ 󿡴 ν Ǿ Ǿ ־. ȯ â ٰ ߴ. ü(Manchester) ó ô ͵ ʾҴٰ Ѵ. ׷⿡ Ʋ(Richard Oastler) 1830 (Leeds) ť(Mercury) 뵿ڵ 뿹ٵ ް ִ١ ƴϾ.

̵ ع ȣ ȸ ̷ ʾҴ. ϳ Ҹ ϴ ׽ ؼ ̷ . ׽ 1833 ڷ Ȱ û ޾ ϳ԰ ڵ鿡 ǹ ̴.

׽ 1833 2 9 18 ûҳ鿡 Ϸ 10ð ̻ 뵿 䱸ϴ ȸ ߴ. Ǿ 1833 ȭ Ǿ. ȿ 14-18 ûҳ鿡 12ð 뵿 Ǿ ־. 뵿ڵ ׽ Ϸ 10ð 뵿̶ ʰ ڽŵ ߴٰ ȴ. ׷ ׽ 10ð  Ͽ 1844 Ÿ ѷ ϸ Ļ ٸ ϵ ϴ (The Factory Act) ״. ׸ ħ 1847 ϴ ڿ 18 ûҳ鿡 Ϸ 10ð ۾ ϴ ¸ ŵΰ Ǿ. ̷ν ó 뵿ڵ ִ ǰ Ǿ ̴.

׽ 뵿ǿ ؼ . ״ 1840 ȸ й ΰ ȸ Ͽ ߴ. ˷ ʾҴµ, 1842 ȸ ϼ ߵ ״. 4-5 Ȥ 8 ʴ ̵ ϰ ִٴ ̾߱Ⱑ Ǿ. ̵ Ϸ 12-14ð ޺ ʴ ӿ ź dz ݴ ؾ ߰, ̵ Ӹ ź и ź ; ߴ. Ϸ Ӹ ̵ ־. ̵ ο ð Ϸ ο ð ű⿡ ; ߱⿡ ޾ ޺ . ε 㸮ѷ ײ Ű ߰ ռ ä 200 Ŀ尡 Ѵ ź ó ׹߷ ߴ. Ȥ ̾. δ ź ߴµ ź Կ ̰ Ҹ ۿ . ϱ, ź ù ν ƹ ٽô ʰ DZ ϳԲ ١ ߴٰ Ѵ. Ÿ ߸ . ̷ ü ʷ ü ηų Ʋ ߴ. ε, Ư ӽ ߿ ʰԱ ô޸ 鿡Դ ذ ɰߴ.

׽ 1842 Ͽ Ҵ. ׷ ְ δ ȭǾ. ΰ ҳ ׸ 10 ( 13) ҳ Ͽ ߰, ˿ 1 ӸϿ ϸ ϰ ߴ. ׽1860 ˿ 12 ̲ °, 1872 ġ ǹȭ ״. ̷ν ״ ӿ ̿ ° źε鿡 ʹ ٸ ȣ ְ ߴ.

״ ̵ ؼ ߴ. ̵ κ Ƶ 4-8 Ұߴ. ֵ ̵ Ǻθ Ϸ ׵ ұݹ ٽ ϱ⸦ ݺߴ. ̵ ҿ ö󰡴 η ϸ ֵ ؿ ¤ ٿ ö ġ ߴ. ̿ ׽ 1864⿡ ȸ 16 ϴ ʸ װ, 1875 ϰ ġ ̸ ϴ ޼״.

ϼ ¿ ε ޿ ġ鵵 ǹ̰ ̴. ״ 1851⿡ ϼ ˿ Ͽ Ȯ ߰, 1855 ũ̾(Crrimea) ¿ ȸ(Sanitary Commission) İ ߴ ̴. ð(Florence Nightingale) ȸ ߴ١ Ͽ.

Ƿ ׽ Թȭ ̷ ΰȭǰ ȸȭ Ǿ ϰ ⵶ȭ Ǿ. ̷ ׽ .

׽ ϻ ͺ ƽϰ ȣȭ ǹ̿ 뵿ڵ عŲ ̱ عŲ ͺ ̾. ׽ , Ʈũ , ׸ ġ ʰ 뿹顯 ϰ عױ ̴.

̷ ׽ Ȱ  . ״ ι ߰ ޵Ʈ Ʋ, 鷯, ׸ Ȱ ߱ ̾. ׽ ݺؼ ڽ ڡ Ͽ.

޵ ׽ ̷ Ȱ 뵿  ƴ. 뵿 ̲ ټ ޵Ʈ ڵ̾, 뵿 12 Ѵٰų ȸ 1Ͼ ޵ ȸ ü Ҵ ̴. ȫ⿡ ϸ 뵿 Ī 뵿 ȸٰ Ѵ. ⿡ 뵿ڵ 뵿 ϴ ߴ. 콺 ϸ 1945⿡ ġǷ± Ӹð Ǿ ġ, ȳ , ׸ Ϲ ε ۵ ְԱ Ǿ. 뵿 å ϰ 뵿̶ ϴ ü ϰ ִ. ġµ 뵿 ߾ Ǿ.

ó ޵ 뵿ڵ ع ȣ ƴ.